Europe, second smallest of the world’s continents, composed of the westward-projecting peninsulas of Eurasia (the great landmass that it shares with Asia) and occupying nearly one-fifteenth of the world’s total land area. It is bordered on the north by the Arctic Ocean, on the west by the Atlantic Ocean, and on the south (west to east) by the Mediterranean Sea, the Black Sea, the Kuma-Manych Depression, and the Caspian Sea. The continent’s eastern boundary (north to south) runs along the Ural Mountains and then roughly southwest along the Emba (Zhem) River, terminating at the northern Caspian coast.
Northern Europe refers to the portion of Europe to the north of Western Europe, the English Channel, and the Baltic Sea; it also includes the Baltic republics.
Countries in Northern Europe
Major Cities in Northern Europe
Copenhagen | Helsinki | Malmö | Nuuk | Oslo | Reykjavik | Riga | Stockholm | Tallinn | Vilnius
Western Europe is the western part of Europe; it is bounded by the Atlantic Ocean in the west, the English Channel and the North Sea to the north, and by the Alps in the south.
Countries in Western Europe
Major Cities in Western Europe
Vienna | Belfast | Brussels | Paris | Dublin | Berlin | Vaduz | Luxembourg | London | The Hague | Amsterdam | Bern | Zürich
Eastern Europe is the geographical region east of Germany and west of the Ural Mountains. The United Nations geoscheme lists ten countries including the former Eastern bloc countries, the former Soviet republics, as well as European Russia.
Countries in Eastern Europe
Major Cities in Eastern Europe
Sofia | Prague | Budapest | Chisinau | Warsaw | Bucharest | Bratislava | Kiev
Southern Europe or Mediterranean Europe refers to the mainly subtropical southern portion of the continent. The region is bounded by the Mediterranean Sea in the south. There are 13 sovereign countries in Southern Europe; seven of those states are members of the European Union.
Countries in Southern Europe
Albania | Andorra | Bosnia and Herzegovina | Croatia | Cyprus | Gibraltar (UK) | Greece | Italy | Kosovo | North Macedonia | Malta | Monaco | Montenegro | Portugal | San Marino | Serbia | Slovenia | Spain | Republic of Turkey
Major Cities in Southern Europe
Tirana | Andorra la Vella | Sarajevo | Zagreb | Nicosia | Gibraltar | Athens | Rome | Milan | Pristina | Skopje | Valletta | Monte Carlo | Podgorica | Lisbon | San Marino | Belgrade | Ljubljana | Madrid | Ankara | Istanbul
Major Geographical Regions of Europe
Scandinavia, actually, Fennoscandia, the region in Northern Europe comprising the Scandinavian Peninsula (Norway and Sweden), Finland, Karelia (a region in Eastern Finland and the Republic of Karelia in the north western Russian Federation), and the Kola Peninsula, with its main city Murmansk, the largest city north of the Arctic Circle.
The Baltic Sea (including the Gulf of Bothnia and the Gulf of Finland) covers an area of 377,000 km2 (146,000 sq mi) making it somewhat larger than Germany or slightly smaller than the US state of Montana. Approximately 85 million people live in the larger Baltic Sea region and use the sea for various purposes. There are nine countries with a shoreline at the Baltic Sea: Denmark, Germany, Poland, Russia (at the Gulf of Finland, and at the Russian exclave of Kaliningrad Oblast), Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia, Finland and Sweden.
The Mediterranean Region are the coastal areas around the Mediterranean Sea. The Mediterranean is at the crossroads of three continents: Europe, Africa, and Asia. The region is characterized by the prevailing subtropical climate known as the Mediterranean climate, with mild, wet winters and hot, dry summers.
The Balkans in Southeastern Europe, an ancient region and since the breakup of Yugoslavia in 1991-92 the site of 10 nations plus the European portion of Turkey. The Balkan peninsula lies east of Italy, separated from it by the Adriatic Sea. The Balkans are bordered by parts of the Mediterranean Sea, the Adriatic and the Ionian Sea in west and by the Aegean Sea in south. The Sea of Marmara south of the peninsula connects the Mediterranean with the Black Sea.
Countries on the Balkan Peninsula
A new and distinct European travel experience abounds in this region budding with tourism. Discover a natural bounty of cultural riches in the forests and lakes that cover endless stretches of countryside. Explore Gūtmaņala Cave, the largest in the Baltic States. Cruise the splendid Baltic Sea coastline. Tour the wonders of the Estonian archipelago, the islet of Neringa and the Curonian Spit, a UNESCO World Heritage Site.
Countries on the Baltic States
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